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Cognitive dysfunction

IL-1 receptor

Rat studies suggest antagonizing IL-1 receptor in the brain could help prevent postoperative cognitive dysfunction in older individuals. In aged rats subjected to a laparotomy, brain infusion of an IL-1 receptor antagonist at the time of surgery prevented postoperative cognitive deficits and neuroinflammation, whereas intraperitoneal injection of the same antagonist did not. Next steps could include developing a strategy capable of delivering an IL-1 receptor antagonist into the CNS.
Kineret anakinra, an IL-1 receptor antagonist from Amgen Inc. and Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB, is marketed to treat rheumatoid arthritis.
Arcalyst rilonacept, a recombinant protein with the heterodimeric IL-1 receptor linked to the Fc portion of human IgG from Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc., is marketed to treat NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3; NALP3; CIAS1)-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS).
At least four other companies have IL-1 receptor inhibitors in Phase II testing or earlier to treat various indications.

SciBX 5(44); doi:10.1038/scibx.2012.1166
Published online Nov. 8, 2012

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Barrientos, R.M. et al. J. Neurosci.; published online Oct. 17, 2012;
Contact: Ruth M. Barrientos, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colo.