Pathogen sensors

The Toll Collectors

Pathogen sensors

Toll-like receptors are transmembrane proteins that were discovered nine years ago in Drosophila when scientists noted that knockout flies lacking TLR genes lost their immunity to fungal infections. In humans, 12 TLRs have been reported, though the twelfth has not been described.

TLRs are expressed by immune cells,

Read the full 516 word article

User Sign In

Article Purchase

This article may not be distributed to non-subscribers

PURCHASE THIS ARTICLE FOR LIMITED ONE-TIME DISTRIBUTION AND WEBSITE POSTING $995.00 USD

PURCHASE