While last year’s spate of clinical misses in lupus leave the field still in search of optimal targets, the 2019 outlook isn’t all doom. Companies with shots on goal are using sharper endpoints and aiming for targets with broader effects on disease biology.
2018 failed to add positively to the record of the last 50 years, which has seen only one targeted therapy approved to treat lupus.
Seven compounds failed to meet their primary endpoints in Phase II or Phase III studies: two immunotherapies targeting interferon α (IFNα) signaling, two biologics against costimulatory ligands, a peptide that dampens autoantigen presentation to T cells and two biologics targeting receptors on B cells (see Table: “2018 Lupus Report Card”).
Those results led at least two companies to abandon targets. Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. walked away from blocking T cell costimulation in lupus, and the Ablynx unit of Sanofi jettisoned its program targeting interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling.
But companies and KOLs who spoke to BioCentury think the jury is still out on the other MOAs with clinical failures last year, in particular blockade of IFNα signaling. The mechanism’s efficacy, they argue, may have been lost in the noise inherent in standard lupus trial designs.
After missing the primary endpoint in the Phase III TULIP 1 trial of anifrolumab, a mAb against the type I interferon receptor, AstraZeneca plc is awaiting results from TULIP 2. Full data from the trials will provide insight into whether the compound works better in a subpopulation of patients with high expression of an interferon gene signature (see “On SLE’s Trail”).
Despite mixed Phase II results from its IFNα Kinoid vaccine, which induces polyclonal antibodies against the cytokine, Neovacs S.A. hopes to hit in Phase III by using an endpoint that gets around the notoriously high placebo effect in lupus and plays to the molecule’s clinical strength: enabling patients to