Table 2. . Multiple studies have determined that the surface antigen poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) is expressed on all but one of the pathogens responsible for the 10 most frequent nosocomial infections as reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for 2006-2007.14 These 10 pathogens accounted for 87% of reported nosocomial infections in the U.S., including central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia and surgical-site infections.

Source: Refs. 1,10,13,15; Alopexx Vaccine LLC

Pathogen

Type

PNAG expressionA

% of all nosocomial infections

Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci

Bacteria

Yes

15

S. aureus

Bacteria

Yes13

15

Enterococcus species, including E. faecalis

Bacteria

Yes (E. faecalis)1

12

Candida albicans

Yeast

Yes1

11

Escherichia coli

Bacteria

Yes

10

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Bacteria

No1

8

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Bacteria

Yes

6

Enterobacter species, including E. cloacae

Bacteria

Yes (E. cloacae)10

5

Acinetobacter baumannii

Bacteria

Yes15

3

K. oxytoca

Bacteria

Yes

2

AIndicates whether the pathogen expresses PNAG on its surface, as reported by the source cited.