Table 1. Adding pathogens to the PNAG list. A study in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences1 has added 24 more species of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, yeast and parasites to the existing list of pathogens that express the surface antigen poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG). There now are about 40 known species of pathogens that express the molecule.

Pathogen speciesA

Pathogen type

Type of infection or diseaseB

Effect of anti-PNAG antibodyC

in vitro

in vivo

Bacillus subtilis

Gram-positive bacteria

Commensal; food poisoning

Pathogen death

Unknown

Campylobacter jejuni

Gram-negative bacteria

Gastroenteritis

Unknown

Unknown

Citrobacter rodentium

Gram-negative bacteria

Veterinary (only in mice)

Unknown

Unknown

Clostridium difficile

Gram-positive bacteria

Nosocomial infections

Unknown

Unknown

Enterococcus faecalis

Gram-positive bacteria

Nosocomial infections

Pathogen death

Unknown

Haemophilus ducreyi

Gram-negative bacteria

Chancroid (genital ulcers)

Unknown

Unknown

H. influenzae

Gram-negative bacteria

Bacteremia, pneumonia, other infections

Unknown

Unknown

Helicobacter pylori

Gram-negative bacteria

Gastritis; gastric ulcers

Unknown

Unknown

Listeria monocytogenes

Gram-positive bacteria

Listeriosis

Unknown

Pathogen death

Mycobacterium smegmatis

Gram-positive bacteria

None known

Unknown

Unknown

M. tuberculosis

Gram-positive bacteria

Tuberculosis

Unknown

Unknown

Neisseria meningitidis

Gram-negative bacteria

Meningitis

Pathogen death

Pathogen death

N. gonorrheae

Gram-negative bacteria

Gonorrhea

Pathogen death

Unknown

Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Typhimurium

Gram-negative bacteria

Gastrointestinal infections

Unknown

Unknown

Streptococcus dysgalactiae

Gram-positive bacteria

Veterinary

Unknown

Unknown

S. pneumoniae

Gram-positive bacteria

Pneumonia, otitis media and other infections

Pathogen death

Pathogen death

S. pyogenes

Gram-positive bacteria

Group A streptococcal infections

Pathogen death

Pathogen death

Candida albicans

Yeast

Nosocomial, eye, urinary tract and other infections

Pathogen death

Pathogen death

Aspergillus flavus

Fungus

Aspergillosis

Unknown

Unknown

Fusarium solani

Fungus

Corneal infection

Unknown

Unknown

Cryptococcus neoformans

Fungus

Respiratory

Unknown

Unknown

Plasmodium berghei

Parasite

Malaria (in animal models)

Unknown

Pathogen death

P. falciparum

Parasite

Malaria

Unknown

Unknown

Trichomonas vaginalis

Parasite

Vaginitis and urogenital infections

Unknown

Unknown

APathogen species listed are the PNAG-expressing pathogens identified in ref. 1. BKey illnesses associated with the pathogen. CPathogens that F598 (SAR279356), a human mAb against PNAG and deacetylated PNAG made by Alopexx Pharmaceuticals LLC and Sanofi, killed in vitro and/or in mice, as reported in ref. 1. Previous studies also reported that F598 killed three additional pathogens in vitro and in mice: the Burkholderia cepacia complex, including B. dolosa, which causes pneumonia in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF);10 Escherichia coli11 and S. aureus,13 including methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA).