Table 1. Behavior DISCrimination. Experiments are based on fixed-period sessions in which animals are placed in an enclosed chamber, and the number of times they produce a response is counted during that time period. In behavioral flexibility, outcome expectancy and effort/reward assays, the animals are trained in a learning stage to perform an action that yields a food reward. In the test stage, the conditions are changed from their training, and their ability to adapt to the new change is measured.






Dn-Disc1 mouse

Wild-type mouse

Behavioral flexibility

Mouse initially learns that pressing the left lever gives the reward; the sides are then switched so that the right lever gives the reward

Adapts to lever switch after multiple sessions

Adapts after one session

Outcome expectancy

Mouse learns to expect that an action will yield sucrose; the value of sucrose is then decreased by prefeeding the animal

Maintains interest in the reward

Loses interest in the reward


Mouse learns to press a lever once for sucrose; the number of required lever hits then escalates over time

Loses motivation to hit the lever multiple times for a reward

Sustains motivation

Social interaction

Mouse given a choice of meeting a stranger mouse or being alone; it is then given a choice of meeting another new mouse or visiting a familiar mouse

No preference for meeting a stranger or being alone, then prefers the familiar mouse

Prefers meeting the stranger mouse in both stages of the test