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Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor three domains long cytoplasmic tail 1 (KIR3DL1; CD158E1); KIR3DL2 (CD158K); KIR3DL3 (CD158Z); CD20

In vitro and mouse studies suggest combining anti-KIR3DL and anti-CD20 antibodies could help treat lymphomas. KIR3DL inhibits NK cells. In cultures of NK cells or human CD20–expressing mouse lymphoma cells, an antibody blocking the mouse homolog of KIR3DL increased cytotoxicity induced by the anti-CD20 antibody Rituxan rituximab compared with that seen in cultures treated only with Rituxan. In transgenic mice expressing human KIR3DL, the anti-KIR3DL antibody lirilumab plus Rituxan led to increased antitumor effects and survival following challenge with human B cell lymphoma compared with either treatment alone. Next steps could include testing the antibody combination in additional animal models and clinical lymphoma isolates.
Innate Pharma S.A.’s lirilumab is in Phase II testing to treat acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and preclinical testing to treat lymphoma. 
Rituxan/MabThera, from Biogen Idec Inc. and the Genentech Inc. unit of Roche, is marketed for a variety of autoimmune diseases and hematological cancers.

SciBX 7(3); doi:10.1038/scibx.2014.84
Published online Jan. 23, 2014

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Kohrt, H.E. et al. Blood;
published online Dec. 10, 2013;
Contact: Holbrook E. Kohrt, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.