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Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R; C-FMS; CD115)

Mouse studies suggest inhibiting CSF1R could increase the efficacy of adoptive T cell cancer immunotherapy. In multiple mouse models of melanoma, the CSF1R inhibitor PLX3397 plus adoptive cell therapy using melanoma-targeted T cells increased both antitumor efficacy and overall survival compared with either treatment alone. In one of the mouse models, PLX3397 plus adoptive cell therapy decreased the number of tumor-infiltrating macrophages and increased tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and T cells compared with adoptive T cell therapy alone. Next steps could include clinical testing of the combination.
Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd.'s Plexxikon Inc. subsidiary has the multikinase inhibitor PLX3397 in Phase II testing to treat several cancers.
At least nine other companies have CSF1R inhibitors or antibodies in Phase I or earlier testing.

SciBX 7(1); doi:10.1038/scibx.2014.6
Published online Jan. 9, 2014

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Mok, S. et al. Cancer Res.; published online Nov. 18, 2013;
Contact: Antoni Ribas, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif.