GlaxoSmithKline plc has been working for years to demonstrate the value of its COPD drugs in real-world settings, but still found the products on Express Scripts Holding Co.'s excluded drugs list for 2014.

The list is intended to reduce costs for plan sponsors by granting exclusive or semi-exclusive formulary placement in return for deep discounts on drugs that the PBM's pharmacy and therapeutics committee considers clinically equivalent (see Cover Story).