Scientists from seven antibiotics developers have proposed a regulatory framework to address the unmet need for new antibacterial drugs. The framework consists of four tiers of approval supported by differing amounts and types of evidence, and label language to prevent overuse and abuse. Tier C is the most novel feature: it would allow stand-alone approvals of pathogen-specific indications based on small-scale clinical trials and preclinical data. The proposal was published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases